Paediatric HF is a complex clinical syndrome resulting from diverse primary and secondary causes and shared pathways of disease progression, correlating with substantial mortality, morbidity and cost.
Current management includes stabilisation with intravenous inotropes/vasopressors, mechanical ventilation, treatment of arrhythmia, and progression to mechanical support. Early identification and treatment of patients who are in the early stages is critical to prevent progression to end-stage heart failure.
Ventricular assist devices (VADs) have taken an increasingly important role in the management of advanced heart failure in children. The predominant role of these devices has been as a bridge to heart transplantation, and excellent results are currently achieved for most children with cardiomyopathies.